A model Country School

from: The Bendigo Independant, 19 April 1902

Model country school

A Model Country School

AT AXEDALE.

Several of the State school inspectors at present visiting the Bendigo district, called at the Axedale State school, ” No. . 1008 (Mr. E.A. Whitelock head teacher), and entered the following report  in the register: April 18, 1902

 

“We paid an unannounced visit today. .We find the school to be thoroughly well organised and taught. The school largely works itself, as the pupils and monitors are interested in their school life, and have both well trained in their various duties. . The teacher keeps in touch with all classes.

The teaching largely achieves the valuable results of getting the children to think, and then to express themselves fully. There is an absence of routine work. There is no mere repetition of the teacher’s thoughts. The writing, arithmetic etc. seen, are excellent.

The commendable tone in the school can have been created only by skilful devotion to the best interests of the children. The school room is a picture of neatness and taste, and is well equipped with apparatus of all kinds, growing plants, pictures, diagrams etc.

We consider Mr. Whitelock’s work and influence here worthy of the department’s recognition. We hope the parents are appreciative.

This highly creditable report bears the signatures of no less than four inspectors, namely: Mr. A. Fussell, district inspector; Mr. P. Goyen, chief inspector, Otago, New Zealand; Mr. Wm. Hamilton (Castlemaine District) and Mr T.W. Bothroyd of the Maryborough district

 

(Punctuation and paragraphs  have been added to the above transcription for ease and speed of reading)

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article227558242

Raid At Axedale 1858

Farmers airing their grievances:

from The Bendigo Advertiser, Wednesday 30 June 1858, page 2

A deputation of the farmers and settlers on the Axe, Emu, Mosquito, Kangaroo, and other creeks between Sandhurst and the Campaspe, waited yesterday on the Police Magistrate, Mr. McLachlan, with reference to the impounding of their cattle, by Mr. Costello, of Axedale.

The deputation set forth the grievances under which they labored, in being subjected to the raids of unscrupulous men, who, under the sanction of law, harassed them at their very thresholds. All they required was justice.

Mr. McLachlan could only say that, as Police Magistrate, he would be most happy to afford the redress the law allowed to aggrieved parties who came before him.

Complaints should be made in the proper manner, and they might depend upon it, that justice would be duly administered.

The settlers, we understand, do not intend to allow the matter to rest here, but will take steps to have their case properly brought under the notice of the Government.

(Punctuation and paragraphs  have been added to the above transcription for ease and speed of reading)

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Future of Heathcote depends on agriculture 1889

from: The McIvor Times, Thursday, 18 July, 1889, page 2

AROUND HEATHCOTE

[FROM THE LEADER, BY IT’S AGRICULTURAL REPORTER]

The old established town of Heathcote, or as it was familiarly known in it’s digging days, “The McIvor,” is a well situated but very quiet little town, distant about 30 miles from Sandhurst, Kyneton, Kilmore and Seymour; in fact a very common remark to hear is, that Heathcote is “30 miles from every. where”.

In the busy time of the Fifties, when the miner reigned supreme,  “The McIvor” was a stirring and progressive place; but, like many other mining towns, its glory hath departed, and a period of staid respectability has followed the strong pulsations of the gold fever.

Unless fresh discoveries of the precious metal are made, of which there does not appear to be much probability, it seems certain that the future prosperity of the town must depend in a great measure upon the agricultural and pastoral resources of the district. Fortunately, the outlook in this respect is not discouraging. There is a considerable area of good arable land along the valley of the Campaspe River and the Wild Duck and McIvor Creeks, which is admirably adapted for cereal growing or dairying, while the poorer soil in the vicinity of the town is capable of producing fruit of excellent quality in abundance.

Much of the land around Heathcote is quite equal to the soil of Emu and Axe Creeks, on which so many excellent vineyards and orchards have been established, there is absolutely no reason why a similar developmenit in the district, under notice should not be attended with equally satisfactory results.

The rainfall – always a first consideration in the development of an agricultural district – owing to the proximity of rangy country, is a fairly copious one, a much heavier precipitation than that of the lower Campaspe being generally obtained. The isolated position of the town and district has been the main cause of the smallness of the cultivated area.

At the present time, Heathcote is distant from Melbourne 130 miles by rail, the route being by way of Sandhurst from which city, a line was opened some 8 months ago. The railway line now being constructed from Heathcote to Kilmore will shorten the distance to the metropolis considerably, the mileage being reduced to something over 70 miles. When this line is opened, an event which will shortly take place, the cost of sending produce to: Melbourne will be so reduced that considerable development in the agricultural resources may be confidently anticipated.

Heathcote is situated on the McIvor Creek, a tributary of the Campaspe. Contrasted with the towns which have sprung up in the new agricultural districts of the colony, it has a venerable appearance, its buildings being of the substantial order. The town consists mainly of the main street, which extends for a distance of nearly two miles along the main Echuca Road. The buildings are scattered, but the rows of splendid trees which have. been planted give it a continuous appearance, while the bends in.the road prevent a monotonous effect.

Tree planting is now exciting a good deal of attention in the colony, and many shire councils are displaying commendable activity, in, planting the streets of the towns which come under their jurisdiction. The tree planting idea struck the Heathcote people, more than 20 years ago, and they.have every reason to be satisfied with their efforts.

The pines and elms which have been most largely used, have now assumed large proportions and will compare favorably with any trees of the kind in the colony. Many of the Pinus Isaignia have attained a height of from 75 to 80 feet, and a diameter of 3 feet 6 inches. In the centre of the town, there is a park which is kept in excellent order, and also contains many fine specimens of the pine family, as well as numbers of well grown, deciduous trees and flowering shrubs.

A well improved large estate, in the neighborhood of Heathcote is Mount Camel, the property of Mr C. P. Davis. The steading is distant 12 miles from the town, and the property occupies both sides of the Cornelia Creek for a distance of about 8 miles, along its course to Lake Cooper. Formerly the run was an extensive one, a large tract of the surrounding country being taken in, but the wave of selection which passed over the district had the effect of curtailing its dimensions, and at the present time it consists of 6500 acres of freehold, with 4500 acres of adjoining Crown lands, the character of which is inferior.

The purchased land takes in the eastern slope of the Mount Camel range, and also encloses some excellent alluvial flats along the course of the creek. The estate has, been for many years under the management of Mr John Begg, under whose control it has been considerably improved and its stock grazing capabilities greatly increased.

In its natural state a good deal of the land was heavily timbered, but with the exception of the trees required for shelter and the renewal of fences, the whole of the forest on the estate has been rung and the fallen timber burned off. A sward of natural grass has been thickened and its fattening qualities much improved by their process. The paddocks, 20 in number, are securely enclosed with.either 3rail or 7wire fences. Some chock and log fencing still remains, but this is being superseded as quickly as: possible by the better class mentioned. Tanks have been excavated in every paddock except those with a frontage to the creek, so, the water supply for stock is always ample. The creek being a permanent one and the tanks large. The hillsides are lightly timbered, with prettily shaped she oak trees, which serve to give it a park like  and picturesque appearance.

The homestead, is established on a slope, close to Cornella Creek, and is surrounded by a row of stately pines and a well kept flower garden and orchard enclosed by an excellent hawthorn hedge.

The household water supply is at present obtained from an underground tank, while for the stables and other purposes a large dam, is utilised, the water being conveyed in pipes, and also used for irrigating the orchard and garden.

It is Mr Beggs intention, however, to supply the house from, a large wooden tank lined with iron, which he intends to construct so that instead of the water having to be pumped it will flow by gravitation. The idea of an overground tank, is a good one, and has been adopted in the Rutherglen district, where several large brick cisterns have been built.

The outbuildings at Mount Camel are numerous, well designed and substantially constructed, the stables and barn in particular, being very good.. An addition is now now being made to the woolshed for  the purpose of erecting a driving shaft to which several Wolseley sheep shearing machines will be attached.

Mr. Begg is of opinion, from what he knows of the machine, that it has many advantages to recommend it, amongst them being evenness of staple, and the absence of “second cut,” which always deteriorates the price of the wool. Only suficient cultivation for the use of the stock on the estate is carried on.

Fifteen acres are cropped every year for hay and the method now adopted in dealing with the cultivation paddocks is to take off a couple of crops and lay the land down under lucerne. This fodder plant succeeds so well in the district that Mr. Begg intends to go in largely for its cultivation and eventually a considerable extent of the flat along the creek will be sewn down.

About 30 acres are under lucerne, at the present time, and the area will be increased at the rate of 15 or 20 acres per annum. The land is prepared by being ploughed, harrowed twice, rolled, and the seed sown at the rate of 12 lb. per acre, a fine light harrowing being given as a covering. The sowing is generally done in August, and the following autumn the lucerne fields are lightly stocked with sheep. The most experienced cultivators of the plant are unanimous in saying that lucerne should only be stocked during the months of June and July. At all other times of the year the growth should he cut. This appears to be too troublesome a method of dealing with the plant to suit the tastes of many who cultivate it, and stock are there turned on at any time of the year that is convenient for the owner. Mr Begg finds that his lucerne fields begin to grow weak in about 6 years, a renewal being necessary about that time.

The only cereal crops cultivated is either wheat or oats for hay, the yields being about 2 tons per acre in a fair season. Sheep are the principal stock kept, and for many years past Mr. Begg has devoted considerable attention to raising the standard character of his flock.

The main object in view, with regard to the stud flock at Mount Camel, is to breed rams for use on a station, which Mr. Davis owns near Bourke, in New South Wales. The first start was made about 18 years ago with some ?(unreadable)  sheep obtained from the Coliban Park stud. These sheep were originally from the stud of Mr. James Gibson Bellevue, Tasmania.Rams were subsequently obtained from this gentleman and used with great success.

A draft of ewes from Mr. E Willis’s Woolomert Stud, were also introduced and with those as a nucleus, he present stud has been bred. The sheep are carefully classed every year, and from 50 to 100 ewes selected for stud stud purposes. The stud flock numbers about 900 ewes, and after the third lambing these are sold, their places being taken by younger sheep. Rams of a strain. which have been found to nick well with the class of ewes on the estate are purchased every third year.

The breeding flock numbers about 2580 ewes, and as a rule about 10,000 sheep are shorn every year. The average lambing has been 85 per cent. The sheep possess good frame and are well clothed on all points with dense and fairly lengthy wool of excellent quality. Mr. Begg has exhibited his sheep at several shows, notably Murchison in the Goulburn Valley, and has been a very successful prizetaker.

A few good Shorthorn cattle are kept on the estate. They are of the Bates’ strain and altogether the herd numbers 38. The bull now in use is Agamemnon’s Hopeful, , recently purchased from Mr. Henry Stevenson’s Nidrie herd, and bred by Mr. 0. B. Fisher.

The horses number about 40 head, amongst them being 15 draughts. the remainder being hacks. A very useful looking stallion named Tattigan, by McGregor from a trotting mare by Lothair, is now doing stud duty. He is a good horse, standing over 16 hands in height and showing both bone and quality. A mare by the well known trotting sire, Boccaccio, is worthy of notice. The rest of the hacks are a very good lot, most of them being by McGregor and Ladykirk.

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article90203037

(Punctuation and paragraphs  have been added to the above transcription for ease and speed of reading)

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Rousing up the council 1881

from: The Bendigo Advertiser, Saturday 11 June 1881, page 2

THE AXEDALE ROAD

(To the Editor of the Bendigo Advertiser.)

Sir,- I crave a small space in your valuable journal for the purpose of describing to you the condition of the Axedale road. I think that it is time something was said or done about this road, Which is in a beastly condition. At every foot a dray or buggy goes, one of the wheels goes into a bog hole, with which the road is actually covered. I really think that it is time the council did something to improve this road. What are the councillors about! Why do the rate payers not wake them up to a sense of their duty? There is plenty of metal lying on the centre of the road, and there is every probability of it laying there for some time to come unless the councillors are roused up. Hoping that some action will be taken in the matter.

I am, etc., RATEPAYER.

 

The Axedale Incendiarism

from: The Kerang Times and Swan Hill Gazette, 05 Oct 1886, page 5

THE AXEDALE INCENDIARISAM At the Sandhurst police court on Wednesday September, 29th, a young. man, named Robert Elliott was brought up on remand from Drouin, charged with unlawfully and maliciously setting fire to two stacks of corn, the property of Lazarus Bros., and valued at £500, at Axe Creek, on the 21st January last.

Mr. Connelly prosecuted, and Mr. ,Rymer defended the prisoner. who pleaded “Not Guilty.” : Detective A. G. Sainsbury deposed that he conducted the investigation into the firing of the stacks of Messrs. Lazarus Bros.

He visited the scene on the 22nd January, the day after they had been set fire to, and saw two stacks still burning. He saw bootmarks of a man as if he had been running from the stack. The tracks corresponded with a boot produced, which he received from the prisoner, who said he wore it when he set.the stack on fire. The boots corresponded exactly in length and, breadth.

With the assistance of the Government black-trackers, they traced the prints first easterly to the creek, and then in a southerly direction towards Doak’s: After following them 33 chains, they were lost at Doak’s brush fence.

He saw Elliott that day, and spoke to him, also to other men there. Prisoner, to the best of his belief said he knew nothing about it. On the 8th of this month, he went to Drouin with Mr. (unreadable) to conceal himself on the ceiling of the lockup. The ceiling was of logs and some had spaces between them.

Prisoner and a man named Bush were in the cell. Mr. Rymer:” I object to anything being put forward which was said by the prisoner. There was no doubt that a confession was made in writing, and that must be handed in”.The bench overruled the objection.

Witness, proceeding, said with reference to the conversation, he overheard that Bush I asked Elliott ” How is old Lazarus getting, on,” and Elliott replied ” I don’t know; you must not say I ever let you know of the fire. That red-headed Irishman,who was manager for Lazarus is dead.” Bush said ” Is that the overseer that came to Doak’s where they were threshing and said the machine was useless?” Elliott replied ” Yes.” and Bush asked him. if that was the night of the fire. Prisoner. answered “Yes don’t speak too loud” Bush continues, “Did you set fire to all the stacks?”. ” Prisoner replied, ” I only set fire to one, and the other must have caught from it.” Bush said, “I suppose you ran then,’. and prisoner answered, “My —-oath I did.”

Prisoner was heard to say, also that Doak said the fire served Lazarus right. On the following morning,witness saw prisoner, who said he thought he had seen him (witness) before. Witness told him who he was, and he recollected.

After further conversation he told prisoner he had come over about the fire and that he suspected him. He then said he never fired the stacks,and asked him if Bush had told him. Witness replied, “I heard you say so to Bush, when you asked him not to tell”.

Witness showed him where he had been concealed. Prisoner said “Oh, well, it’s no use denying it. I did burn Lazarus’ stacks. I set fire to one of them.” Constable O’Meara, the lockup-keeper, then came to the door, and prisoner continued that he set the stack afire because “the overseer wouldn’t have the old man’s machine or the other cockeys (farmer’s) either”.

He said his father never told him to do it. Prisoner said he had no objection to repeat the statement to some other person. Witness asked him whether he was willing to go to Sandhurst and be tried for the offence. Prisoner replied “I may as well be in gaol. I did it, and must put up with the consequences”.

Prisoner then went with him to the Shire hall next door, and made a statement before :Mr. Startup, J.P. and Mr. Beckwith. Prisoner signed the document (produced), after it had been read over to him.

Witness subsequently swore an information against him. He never induced the prisoner by threats, promises, or anything to make the confession.

Later on that day, witness was at the police station. and prisoner.sent for him. He went to him, and prisoner said ” I suppose you heard me telling Jack Bush that Doak said it was a good job. Well, Doak never said it at all.”  Prisoner gave him as a reason for saying so that he thought Bush would refrain from telling anyone.

To Mr. Rymer: Prisoner was in gaol at Dronin on a charge of false pretences. He put Bush in the lockup as a means of hearing hearing what prisoner said. He was sure that Bush was not put in for being drunk.

There was no charge against Bush, who consented to be locked up. Bush first told witness that prisoner had informed him when at Shelbourne, he had fired the stacks.

There is a reward of £100, which he now thinks Bush will receive. The boots of the man Boyle, who was first arrested on suspicion, were No.8,. and fitted the track. Boyle never made a statement that he had fired the stack.

Samuel and Daniel Lazarus, the owners of the stacks destroyed, William Doak; farmer, Axedale, and Peter Alias, laborer, who saw the prisoner hurrying along the road from Lazarus’ at the time of the fire, gave evidence, and the prisoner was committed to take his trial at .the Assize Court on the 14th October next.

from wikipedia: incendiarism – Dictionary definition and meaning for word incendiarism. (noun) malicious burning to destroy property. Synonyms : arson , fire-raising. the British term for arson is fire-raising –

(Punctuation and paragraphs have been added to the above transcription for ease and speed of reading)

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Typhoid At Axedale 1914

from: Bendigo Advertiser, 10 November 1914, page 5

TYPHOID AT AXEDALE

A second report by Dr. Gaffney stated – “I inspected the houses where there had been typhoid fever, and especially the sanitary conditions of those dwellings and outhouses. I find there are two sanitary systems in vogue – one a “pan” system and the other the “pit” system.

In a great number of instances the articles used as ‘pans’ were much too small to be adequate. It must be borne in mind – and this is most important – that not only solid but also liquid excretia must be provided for as as the typhoid baccillus is demonstratable in the urine voided by typhoid patients. Given that the receptacle is adequate for both forms of excreta, the next thing is to consider the disposal of the contents.

Burial at a depth of at least 2 ft is essential and in such a place, that there is no possibility of the infection of water supply. There should be provided in the privvies in this system, some disinfectant solution which should be used regularly. It is also very necessary that these receptacles should be protected from flies, which are a most important factor in the dissemination of typhoid fever.

The pit system is a good one if the precautionary measures mentioned later are carried out conscientiously. But if these precautions be neglected, then the pit system would be an extremely pernicious one.

Carelessness or neglect of the precautions would form each pit into an incubator for the typhoid bacilli and would increase in number and virulence to an enormous extent. The first essential is that there be provided a large amount of lime at hand and that each person use it freely.

The second is the protection from flies, as in the other system.

All water for human consumption must be boiled, and all milk sterilised, and scalded.

All food must be protected by means of wire covers, etc from flies. Cleanliness of person, especially in those who have the handling of food, is of paramount importance.

I am afraid that there is going to be a good deal of typhoid fever this year, and in order to check it,  and prevent it getting a hold on the community, it will be necessary to exert the utmost care in every detail.

With regard to Axedale, the distressing seasonal conditions prevailing are the most important factor in this outbreak, and the small number of typhoid cases during the past couple of summers, has given rise to a certain amount of carelessness on the part of the residents, which must be guarded against this summer”.

(Punctuation and paragraphs have been added to the above transcription for ease and speed of reading)